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CUEs Classification
Category Applications
Agriculture Synthesis of agrochemicals, genetic engineering in plants, bio-degradation of agrochemicals
Biosensor Biosensors, enzyme assays, enzyme estimation analysis, diagnostics
Biotechnology Biotechnology, synthesis of chemicals using microbial biocatalysts, industrial application of biocatalysts, bioreactor, molecular biology
Energy Bio-fuel production, Bio-fuel cell, energy
Environment Biodegradation of toxic compounds, treatment of industrial wastes and effluents, purification, detoxification
Food & Nutrition Packaged foods and processing, juices, dairy, synthesis, bakery, brewing, biosensors, fermentation, animal feeds, agri-food
Medical Diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, drug development, medicine, pharmacology, kits, cosmetics, supporting fine-chemicals
Other industries Textile, leather, steel, paper, rubber, fiber, detergents
Miscellaneous Enzymes with miscellaneous industrial applications

Enzyme Nomenclature

The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have developed a nomenclature for enzymes, the  EC numbers. Each enzyme is described by a sequence of four numbers preceded by "EC". The first number broadly classifies the enzyme based  on its mechanism:

The ExplorEnz and ENZYME databases are the repositories of information relative to the nomenclature of enzymes and provide the latest version of enzyme nomenclature along with other functional information.

References

  • Bairoch, A. (2000) The ENZYME database in 2000. Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 304-305.
  • McDonald AG, Boyce S, Tipton KF (2009) ExplorEnz: the primary source of the IUBMB enzyme list. Nucleic Acids Res., Jan;37(Database issue):D593-7. Epub 2008 Sep 6.

The main level of classification is provided below:

 EC 1 Oxidoreductases: catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions

 EC 2 Transferases: transfer a functional group (e.g. a methyl or phosphate group)

 EC 3 Hydrolases: catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds

 EC 4 Lyases: cleave various bonds by means other than hydrolysis and oxidation

 EC 5 Isomerases: catalyze isomerization changes within a single molecule

 EC 6 Ligases: join two molecules with covalent bonds

The complete nomenclature is available at http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/.

 

The detailed classification of Enzymes as per the ‘ENZYME nomenclature database’, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB); Geneva, Switzerland, is provided below:

(Updated on: June 19,2007)

1. -. -.-  Oxidoreductases.

1. 1. -.-   Acting on the CH-OH group of donors.

1. 1. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 1. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 1. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 1. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1. 1. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1. 1.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 2. -.-   Acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors.

1. 2. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 2. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 2. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 2. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1. 2. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 2.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 3. -.-   Acting on the CH-CH group of donors.

1. 3. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 3. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 3. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 3. 5.-    With a quinone or related compound as acceptor.

1. 3. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 3.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 4. -.-   Acting on the CH-NH(2) group of donors.

1. 4. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 4. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 4. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 4. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1. 4. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 4.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 5. -.-   Acting on the CH-NH group of donors.

1. 5. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 5. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 5. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1. 5. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1. 5. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 5. 8.-    With a flavin as acceptor.

1. 5.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 6. -.-   Acting on NADH or NADPH.

1. 6. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 6. 2.-    With a heme protein as acceptor.

1. 6. 3.-    With a oxygen as acceptor.

1. 6. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1. 6. 6.-    With a nitrogenous group as acceptor.

1. 6.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 7. -.-   Acting on other nitrogenous compounds as donors.

1. 7. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 7. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 7. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 7. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 7.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 8. -.-   Acting on a sulfur group of donors.

1. 8. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1. 8. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1. 8. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 8. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1. 8. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1. 8. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1. 8.98.-    With other, known, acceptors.

1. 8.99.-    With other acceptors.

1. 9. -.-   Acting on a heme group of donors.

1. 9. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1. 9. 6.-    With a nitrogenous group as acceptor.

1. 9.99.-    With other acceptors.

1.10. -.-   Acting on diphenols and related substances as donors.

1.10. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1.10. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1.10. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1.10.99.-    With other acceptors.

1.11. -.-   Acting on a peroxide as acceptor.

1.11. 1.-    Peroxidases.

1.12. -.-   Acting on hydrogen as donor.

1.12. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1.12. 2.-    With a cytochrome as acceptor.

1.12. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1.12. 7.-    With an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.

1.12.98.-    With other known acceptors.

1.12.99.-    With other acceptors.

1.13. -.-   Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen.

1.13.11.-    With incorporation of two atoms of oxygen.

1.13.12.-    With incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.13.99.-    Miscellaneous (requires further characterization).

1.14. -.-   Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen.

1.14.11.-    With 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors.

1.14.12.-    With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and incorporation of two atoms of oxygen into one donor.

1.14.13.-    With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.14.-    With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.15.-    With a reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.16.-    With reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.17.-    With reduced ascorbate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.18.-    With another compound as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen.

1.14.19.-    With oxidation of a pair of donors resulting in the reduction of molecular oxygen to two molecules of water.

1.14.20.-    With 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and the other dehydrogenated.

1.14.21.-    With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and the other dehydrogenated.

1.14.99.-    Miscellaneous (requires further characterization).

1.15. -.-   Acting on superoxide as acceptor.

1.15. 1.-    Acting on superoxide as acceptor.

1.16. -.-   Oxidizing metal ions.

1.16. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1.16. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1.16. 8.-    With flavin as acceptor.

1.17. -.-   Acting on CH or CH(2) groups.

1.17. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1.17. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1.17. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1.17. 5.-    With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor.

1.17.99.-    With other acceptors.

1.18. -.-   Acting on iron-sulfur proteins as donors.

1.18. 1.-    With NAD(+) or NADP(+) as acceptor.

1.18. 6.-    With dinitrogen as acceptor.

1.19. -.-   Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor.

1.19. 6.-    With dinitrogen as acceptor.

1.20. -.-   Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors.

1.20. 1.-    Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors, with NAD(P)(+) as acceptor.

1.20. 4.-    Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors, with disulfide as acceptor.

1.20.98.-    Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors, with other, known acceptors.

1.20.99.-    Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors, with other acceptors.

1.21. -.-   Acting on x-H and y-H to form an x-y bond.

1.21. 3.-    With oxygen as acceptor.

1.21. 4.-    With a disulfide as acceptor.

1.21.99.-    With other acceptors.

1.97. -.-   Other oxidoreductases.

1.97. 1.-    Sole sub-subclass for oxidoreductases that do not belong in the other subclasses.

 

2. -. -.-  Transferases.

2. 1. -.-   Transferring one-carbon groups.

2. 1. 1.-    Methyltransferases.

2. 1. 2.-    Hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and related transferases.

2. 1. 3.-    Carboxyl- and carbamoyltransferases.

2. 1. 4.-    Amidinotransferases.

2. 2. -.-   Transferring aldehyde or ketone residues.

2. 2. 1.-    Transketolases and transaldolases.

2. 3. -.-   Acyltransferases.

2. 3. 1.-    Transferring groups other than amino-acyl groups.

2. 3. 2.-    Aminoacyltransferases.

2. 3. 3.-    Acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer.

2. 4. -.-   Glycosyltransferases.

2. 4. 1.-    Hexosyltransferases.

2. 4. 2.-    Pentosyltransferases.

2. 4.99.-    Transferring other glycosyl groups.

2. 5. -.-   Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups.

2. 5. 1.-    Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups.

2. 6. -.-   Transferring nitrogenous groups.

2. 6. 1.-    Transaminases (aminotransferases).

2. 6. 3.-    Oximinotransferases.

2. 6.99.-    Transferring other nitrogenous groups.

2. 7. -.-   Transferring phosphorous-containing groups.

2. 7. 1.-    Phosphotransferases with an alcohol group as acceptor.

2. 7. 2.-    Phosphotransferases with a carboxyl group as acceptor.

2. 7. 3.-    Phosphotransferases with a nitrogenous group as acceptor.

2. 7. 4.-    Phosphotransferases with a phosphate group as acceptor.

2. 7. 6.-    Diphosphotransferases.

2. 7. 7.-    Nucleotidyltransferases.

2. 7. 8.-    Transferases for other substituted phosphate groups.

2. 7. 9.-    Phosphotransferases with paired acceptors.

2. 7.10.-    Protein-tyrosine kinases.

2. 7.11.-    Protein-serine/threonine kinases.

2. 7.12.-    Dual-specificity kinases (those acting on Ser/Thr and Tyr residues).

2. 7.13.-    Protein-histidine kinases.

2. 7.99.-    Other protein kinases.

2. 8. -.-   Transferring sulfur-containing groups.

2. 8. 1.-    Sulfurtransferases.

2. 8. 2.-    Sulfotransferases.

2. 8. 3.-    CoA-transferases.

2. 8. 4.-    Transferring alkylthio groups.

2. 9. -.-   Transferring selenium-containing groups.

2. 9. 1.-    Selenotransferases.

 

3. -. -.-  Hydrolases.

3. 1. -.-   Acting on ester bonds.

3. 1. 1.-    Carboxylic ester hydrolases.

3. 1. 2.-    Thiolester hydrolases.

3. 1. 3.-    Phosphoric monoester hydrolases.

3. 1. 4.-    Phosphoric diester hydrolases.

3. 1. 5.-    Triphosphoric monoester hydrolases.

3. 1. 6.-    Sulfuric ester hydrolases.

3. 1. 7.-    Diphosphoric monoester hydrolases.

3. 1. 8.-    Phosphoric triester hydrolases.

3. 1.11.-    Exodeoxyribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.13.-    Exoribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.14.-    Exoribonucleases producing 3'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.15.-    Exonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acid and producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.16.-    Exonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acid and producing 3'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.21.-    Endodeoxyribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.22.-    Endodeoxyribonucleases producing other than 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.25.-    Site-specific endodeoxyribonucleases specific for altered bases.

3. 1.26.-    Endoribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.27.-    Endoribonucleases producing other than 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.30.-    Endoribonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acid and producing 5'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 1.31.-    Endoribonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxyribonucleic acid and producing 3'-phosphomonoesters.

3. 2. -.-   Glycosylases.

3. 2. 1.-    Glycosidases, i.e. enzymes hydrolyzing O- and S-glycosyl  compounds.

3. 2. 2.-    Hydrolyzing N-glycosyl compounds.

3. 3. -.-   Acting on ether bonds.

3. 3. 1.-    Thioether and trialkylsulfonium hydrolases.

3. 3. 2.-    Ether hydrolases.

3. 4. -.-   Acting on peptide bonds (peptide hydrolases).

3. 4.11.-    Aminopeptidases.

3. 4.13.-    Dipeptidases.

3. 4.14.-    Dipeptidyl-peptidases and tripeptidyl-peptidases.

3. 4.15.-    Peptidyl-dipeptidases.

3. 4.16.-    Serine-type carboxypeptidases.

3. 4.17.-    Metallocarboxypeptidases.

3. 4.18.-    Cysteine-type carboxypeptidases.

3. 4.19.-    Omega peptidases.

3. 4.21.-    Serine endopeptidases.

3. 4.22.-    Cysteine endopeptidases.

3. 4.23.-    Aspartic endopeptidases.

3. 4.24.-    Metalloendopeptidases.

3. 4.25.-    Threonine endopeptidases.

3. 4.99.-    Endopeptidases of unknown catalytic mechanism.

3. 5. -.-   Acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds.

3. 5. 1.-    In linear amides.

3. 5. 2.-    In cyclic amides.

3. 5. 3.-    In linear amidines.

3. 5. 4.-    In cyclic amidines.

3. 5. 5.-    In nitriles.

3. 5.99.-    In other compounds.

3. 6. -.-   Acting on acid anhydrides.

3. 6. 1.-    In phosphorous-containing anhydrides.

3. 6. 2.-    In sulfonyl-containing anhydrides.

3. 6. 3.-    Acting on acid anhydrides; catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances.

3. 6. 4.-    Acting on acid anhydrides; involved in cellular and subcellular movement.

3. 6. 5.-    Acting on GTP; involved in cellular and subcellular movement.

3. 7. -.-   Acting on carbon-carbon bonds.

3. 7. 1.-    In ketonic substances.

3. 8. -.-   Acting on halide bonds.

3. 8. 1.-    In C-halide compounds.

3. 9. -.-   Acting on phosphorus-nitrogen bonds.

3. 9. 1.-    Acting on phosphorus-nitrogen bonds.

3.10. -.-   Acting on sulfur-nitrogen bonds.

3.10. 1.-    Acting on sulfur-nitrogen bonds.

3.11. -.-   Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds.

3.11. 1.-    Acting on carbon-phosphorus bonds.

3.12. -.-   Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds.

3.12. 1.-    Acting on sulfur-sulfur bonds.

3.13. -.-   Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds.

3.13. 1.-    Acting on carbon-sulfur bonds.

 

4. -. -.-  Lyases.

4. 1. -.-   Carbon-carbon lyases.

4. 1. 1.-    Carboxy-lyases.

4. 1. 2.-    Aldehyde-lyases.

4. 1. 3.-    Oxo-acid-lyases.

4. 1.99.-    Other carbon-carbon lyases.

4. 2. -.-   Carbon-oxygen lyases.

4. 2. 1.-    Hydro-lyases.

4. 2. 2.-    Acting on polysaccharides.

4. 2. 3.-    Acting on phosphates.

4. 2.99.-    Other carbon-oxygen lyases.

4. 3. -.-   Carbon-nitrogen lyases.

4. 3. 1.-    Ammonia-lyases.

4. 3. 2.-    Lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc.

4. 3. 3.-    Amine-lyases.

4. 4. -.-   Carbon-sulfur lyases.

4. 4. 1.-    Carbon-sulfur lyases.

4. 5. -.-   Carbon-halide lyases.

4. 5. 1.-    Carbon-halide lyases.

4. 6. -.-   Phosphorus-oxygen lyases.

4. 6. 1.-    Phosphorus-oxygen lyases.

4.99. -.-   Other lyases.

4.99. 1.-    Sole sub-subclass for lyases that do not belong in the other subclasses.

 

5. -. -.-  Isomerases.

5. 1. -.-   Racemases and epimerases.

5. 1. 1.-    Acting on amino acids and derivatives.

5. 1. 2.-    Acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives.

5. 1. 3.-    Acting on carbohydrates and derivatives.

5. 1.99.-    Acting on other compounds.

5. 2. -.-   Cis-trans-isomerases.

5. 2. 1.-    Cis-trans Isomerases.

5. 3. -.-   Intramolecular oxidoreductases.

5. 3. 1.-    Interconverting aldoses and ketoses.

5. 3. 2.-    Interconverting keto- and enol- groups.

5. 3. 3.-    Transposing C==C bonds.

5. 3. 4.-    Transposing S-S bonds.

5. 3.99.-    Other intramolecular oxidoreductases.

5. 4. -.-   Intramolecular transferases (mutases).

5. 4. 1.-    Transferring acyl groups.

5. 4. 2.-    Phosphotransferases (phosphomutases).

5. 4. 3.-    Transferring amino groups.

5. 4. 4.-    Transferring hydroxy groups.

5. 4.99.-    Transferring other groups.

5. 5. -.-   Intramolecular lyases.

5. 5. 1.-    Intramolecular lyases.

5.99. -.-   Other isomerases.

5.99. 1.-    Sole sub-subclass for isomerases that do not belong in the other subclasses.

 

6. -. -.-  Ligases.

6. 1. -.-   Forming carbon-oxygen bonds.

6. 1. 1.-    Ligases forming aminoacyl-tRNA and related compounds.

6. 2. -.-   Forming carbon-sulfur bonds.

6. 2. 1.-    Acid--thiol ligases.

6. 3. -.-   Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds.

6. 3. 1.-    Acid--ammonia (or amide) ligases (amide synthases).

6. 3. 2.-    Acid--D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases).

6. 3. 3.-    Cyclo-ligases.

6. 3. 4.-    Other carbon--nitrogen ligases.

6. 3. 5.-    Carbon--nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amido-N-donor.

6. 4. -.-   Forming carbon-carbon bonds.

6. 4. 1.-    Ligases that form carbon-carbon bonds.

6. 5. -.-   Forming phosphoric ester bonds.

6. 5. 1.-    Ligases that form phosphoric-ester bonds.

6. 6. -.-   Forming nitrogen-metal bonds.

6. 6. 1.-    Forming coordination complexes.

   
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